Saturday, July 12, 2008

6. Queensland clinical psychologist: "Research showed male children suffered more physical abuse at the hands of their mothers"

Queensland clinical psychologist Dr Narelle Dawson said research showed male children suffered more physical abuse at the hands of their mothers. 'Boys beaten by their mothers are prone to a life of dysfunctional relationships with women or a sense of enduring unhappiness or prolonged periods of sadness. "If you stop mothers beating boys, you will grow less angry male children, less angry adult men, have less domestic violence (and) less child abuse." She said further studies into the long-term consequences of female violence towards male children were needed to end the "conspiracy of silence on the emerging evidence around women who grow angry, abusive males".

Mums worse in smacking stakes

Australia - BrisbaneTimes - Queensland - Marissa Calligeros | July 9, 2008 - 5:00AM

Mothers are worse than fathers when it comes to physically abusing their children, and are more likely to create a cycle of abuse that sees boys grow into violent men, one expert says.

While historical research has suggested young males learned abusive behaviour from their father-figure, Queensland clinical psychologist Dr Narelle Dawson said research showed male children suffered more physical abuse at the hands of their mothers.

"Boys beaten by their mothers are prone to a life of dysfunctional relationships with women or a sense of enduring unhappiness or prolonged periods of sadness," Dr Dawson said.

"If you stop mothers beating boys, you will grow less angry male children, less angry adult men, have less domestic violence (and) less child abuse."

Dr Dawson's doctorate research into child abuse revealed that more than half of the 2029 children she surveyed were assaulted, 30 per cent of whom went on to make serious suicide attempts in their adolescence.

She said further studies into the long-term consequences of female violence towards male children were needed to end the "conspiracy of silence on the emerging evidence around women who grow angry, abusive males".

Her findings have drawn ire from others working in the field, who have dismissed them as damaging "generalisations".

Dr Dawson has attributed dysfunctional or abusive mother-child relationships to the prevalence of violent behaviour among adult males.

"There is a vicious cycle here that is not being addressed," she said.

"If we want to stop men assaulting women and children we need to ask 'What was their childhood background of abuse?'

"The maternal-child attachment provides a framework for all subsequent relationships that the child will develop ... I therefore suggest you will find violent adult males have suffered an abusive mother."

Australian Association of Social Workers national president Dr Bob Lonne slammed suggestions mothers were commonly responsible for inflicting injury on their sons.

"There is reason to imply that mothers would discipline their children with force more often as they are the primary care givers, but the difference between the rates of abuse by fathers and mothers is marginal," Dr Lonne said.

"It is not wise to make such a generalisation. Physical child abuse occurs for a raft of reasons by both mothers and fathers."

Professor Karen Healy, of the University of Queensland's School of Social Work, said it was uncommon for primary care givers to cause injury leading to death.

"It is important to not to overstate the facts. We do tend to over-represent severe cases of child abuse and fail to recognise that cases are extremely varied," Professor Healy said.

According to Dr Dawson however, more children were killed by their mothers than their fathers, and sons were killed more frequently than daughters in the last decade.

"I can't say that male-to-female violence has decreased, but female-to-male violence has certainly increased," Dr Dawson said.

"And young boys are the victims."

UN slams Queensland loophole

Australia - BrisbaneTimes - Queensland - Life And Style - Marissa Calligeros | July 9, 2008 - 5:00AM

The United Nations has slammed a loophole in Queensland law that allows parents to use "reasonable force" to discipline their children.

Clinical psychologist Dr Narelle Dawson, of the UN's World Children's Issues Committee, called for the immediate abolishment of Section 280 of Queensland's Criminal Code, which allows parents to use force "believed reasonable under the circumstances".

While she believes a "smack on the bottom" may be appropriate, s280 was instead providing an opportunity for parents to justify more physical abuse with the "reasonable force" defence.

Dr Dawson said using excessive force - such as using implements to discipline, or causing marks and bruising - was associated with aberrations in brain development, behavioural dysfunction and psychological illness.

"Maltreatment is a chisel that shapes a brain to contend with strife, but at the cost of deep enduring wounds," Dr Dawson said, saying the current laws deprived children of "better life outcomes".

Similar laws exist in the Australian Capital Territory, Northern Territory, South Australia, Tasmania and Victoria.

"It is clear that Australia is currently not meeting its international obligations under the Convention of the Rights of the Child to abolish the legal defence of reasonable chastisement of children by parents," Dr Dawson said.

"Tragically, one single traumatic experience is enough to alter brain function."

According to research advocated by the Concerned Psychologists group, chronic stress to children sensitises neural pathways and over-develops certain regions of the brain involved in anxiety and fear responses, and often results in the under-development of other regions of the brain.

"This chronic stimulation of the brain's fear response means that the regions of the brain involved in this response are frequently activated resulting in hyper-vigilance and chronic anxiety," Dr Dawson said.

"These children (misinterpret) non-verbal cues; eye contact can mean a threat and a friendly touch can be interpreted as an antecedent to violence. The `fear response' often seen in abused children can become permanently switched on.

"With disrupted attachments many of these children will grow to care more about day-to-day survival rather than developing positive interactions and relationships."

Research conducted by the Australian Childhood Foundation revealed 45 per cent of Australians surveyed believed it was "okay" to leave a mark on a child following physical punishment.

One in 10 Australians said it was "okay" to use canes, sticks, belts or slippers to hit a child, while one in seven people admitted to using a wooden spoon as a tool for discipline.

"So where will (we) draw the line at the physical punishment of our Aussie kids?" Dr Dawson said.

"Will you draw the line at a broken arm? Will you draw the line at a bruise?"

The controversial defence of s280 was used to pardon a Gold Coast teacher charged with the alleged assault of a student in Southport Magistrates' Court in February this year.

And two parents accused of tying their four children to a shed with a dog chain, beating them with shearing belts and stinging them with cattle prods, were acquitted of all charges under the Tasmanian equivalent of s280 in 1992.

But Brisbane lawyer Michael Bosscher said abolishing s280 would prevent parents wrongly accused of child abuse from protecting themselves.

"This is a 'balance' law and only allows people to use force under reasonable circumstances. It is absolute nonsense that bruising or injuring a child would ever be considered to be 'reasonable force' under the law,'' Mr Bosscher said.

"Yes, there are cases were a good law is badly applied, but it is a very, very rare day when you could ever justify the assault of child as 'reasonable force','' Mr Bosscher said.

Labor Member for Murrumba Dean Wells has said vulnerable children would continue to suffer abuse if the loophole in Queensland law was not closed.

"The fact is that so long as s280 continues to operate ... the courts are going to have to take into account a parent's belief that chaining children up and whipping them with horsewhips is good for them," Mr Wells said.

Dr Dawson's doctorate research into child abuse revealed that of 30 per cent of 1136 children surveyed, who were subjected to excessive disciplinary force had made serious suicide attempts in their adolescence.

"This (statistic) alone should get governments moving on repealing archaic 'reasonable force' laws," Dr Dawson said.

Narelle Dawson PhD Abstracts PhD Thesis

School of Psychology, Massey University; The School of Psychology at Massey University is situated on three campuses, Albany in Auckland, Turitea in Palmerston North, and Wellington.; August 2006

Narelle Dawson recently, successfully defended her thesis. Narelle’s supervisor was Prof Ian Evans.

A Profile and Longitudinal Evaluation of Multiple Risk Factors, Protective Factors, and Outcomes for Suicidal and non-Suicidal out-of-home Adolescents who Applied for the Independent Youth Benefit (IYB)


This Research contributes new knowledge to those working in the areas of welfare, child and adolescent safety, and suicide prevention. The aim of this thesis was to succinctly provide clinicians, government and community agencies, researchers and policy advisors, with a snapshot profile of 2029 welfare seeking young people who were homeless and frequently discouraged by negative life events. The research aim was to identify risk and protective factors that impact life outcomes for those seeking the Independent Youth Benefit (IYB), and particularly, to scrutinize salient factors that led a vulnerable group of IYB applicants to die by suicide. It was further aimed that by documenting comments from 200 young adults from this population across a span of seven years, both gaps within the IYB process, as well as useful resources, could be identified in order to improve life outcomes for other homeless youth. For those who attempted suicide and survived, file records and interviews have indicated the triggers and life histories that potentially impacted their decision to try to end their pain of life, and factors that influenced survival and recovery.

Four separate studies were included in this thesis. Study 1 profiled 2029 IYB applicants and determined the most potent risks that led to the granting of the IYB. Study 2 revealed the salient factors the related to the suicide of 6 IYB applicants. Study 3 investigated the outcomes for those who were granted or declined a benefit across the variables of education, employment, income, adverse life circumstances, wellbeing, and family relationships. Study 4 examined a psychological construct, termed cynical distrust, which appeared to be a characteristic trait in welfare seeking youth.

Conclusions from this research provided indicators of youth who will usually be granted an IYB, they are, those who report bullying, abuse, parent psychopathology, single parent homes, a parent on benefit and foster placement. Applicants who reported suicidal thoughts and suicide attempts and had contact with Police and Child Youth and Family Services also were more likely to be granted an Independent Youth Benefit (IYB). If the applicants were Maori and had previously seen a counsellor for a mental health problem, they were also more likely to receive the IYB. However, when applicants were referred to Family Reconciliation Counselling (FRC), there was a statistically significant association between benefit application and benefit declined.

A unique finding from this population related to the association of ‘unknown fathers’ with suicide. Absent father literature is now extensive, however, little research has been conducted into the effects of ‘unknown fathers’, particularly for Maori youth who place much of their strength and wellbeing in their genealogy. Other salient factors leading to suicide for IYB applicants included, previous suicide attempt, co-morbid disorder, unresolved anger, no identified caring adult, foster placement and an impending legal or disciplinary event.

Maori males with such factors posed the greatest risk for suicide. Counsellors, psychologists, families and policy analysts need to acknowledge that IYB applicants who attempted suicide, show cynical distrust, and were declined a benefit, had extremely poor life outcomes. The New Zealand youth welfare system could be functioning far more efficiently if documented recommendations become realities.

Risks, protection and outcomes

Ministry of Social Development | - Risks, protection and outcomes – SPEaR – December 2004

Clinical psychologist Narelle Dawson is completing doctoral research which evaluates the risks, protective factors and outcomes for young New Zealanders who have applied for the Independent Youth Benefit (IYB).

A SPEaR scholarship helped fund the research, which is thought to be a first that focuses on outcomes for this group of young people. “No one has ever collected longitudinal data in order to assess the outcomes for youth who apply for financial assistance due to family breakdown,” Narelle said.

The research includes four separate studies. The first is a snapshot of the 2,029 16–18 year olds in Waikato who applied for the IYB between 1995 and 2001. The study identifies adverse life and social risk factors across the cohort. The second study is a retrospective file audit of IYB applicants which analyses risk and resiliency factors that contributed to adolescent suicide and suicide survival. The file records of six deceased IYB applicants are scrutinised against 36 other young applicants whose backgrounds were closely matched to the deceased, but who survived. Narelle said her analysis found seven salient factors that discriminated those who died by suicide from the control group. One factor was that none of the six deceased knew who their fathers were. “That has implications for young Maori in particular, as genealogy is a huge part of their identity. I’ll be looking at the psychological implications for indigenous youth, especially where they are not told the name of their father.”

The third study comprises recent interviews with a group of 200 young people who had applied for the IYB between 1995 and 2001. The quantitative data is categorised into four groups – those who were granted the IYB and attempted suicide; those who were declined the IYB and attempted suicide; those who were granted the IYB and did not attempt suicide; and those who were declined the IYB and did not attempt suicide. “I have also recorded qualitative data from the interviews which will outline both the gaps and the resources which, from the point of view of those interviewed, has been influential in developing either positive or negative life outcomes. We hear the voice of the young people who used the system – what did and did not work for them, and what harmed them and what helped them survive.”

The final study will assess ‘cynical distrust levels’ of 200 adults who were former IYB applicants compared with 330 high school students, to test the hypothesis that those attempting suicide have elevated levels of depression and hostility towards others. The thesis will conclude with recommendations for policy advisers, case managers, schools, parents and caregivers.

Thursday, January 03, 2008

5. Norwegian Female Pedophile Predators go Free and stay in job at Oslo orphanages

Norway Television TV2 - By Eirik Haukenes - 04.12.2007

RECEIVED COMPENSATION: The orphanage child received compensation, but the perpetrator stays in her job. ( TV 2 )

He received NOK 725,000 (EUR 100,000) in compensation after sexual abuse in the orphanage, but the female perpatrator is still working at the orphanage.

For 26 years the former orphanage child kept a horrible secret.

- I was sexually abused from an age of 13 to 15 in a private orphanage that Oslo Municipality was paying for. It happened every night shift, tells the former orphanage child.

Recently he applied for compensation with the Oslo Municipality Compensation Fund for Former Orphanage Children. The board found his detailed statement on sexual abuse credible and proven, and he received NOK 725,000 in compensation from Oslo Municipality.

Sylvi Listhaug, the Oslo City Council Executive Member for Welfare and Social Services from FrP (The Norwegian Right Wing Party) is defending the system of payments in exchange for silence over female pedophile predators operating in Oslo orphanages.

Still at work

But in the same judgement they decided not to press charges against the female pedophile perpetrator who was identified by name.

- She still works at the orphanage making her childvictims. It is horrible that she can abuse other children, he said.

So far 275 Norwegians have been formally found credible and admissable in their reportings of abuse. But nothing is being done to check if the perpetrators identified by name are still working in the system.

- It is not in our task definition and discretion to investigate these matters further, said Berit Rannestad, general secretary of the Oslo Municipality Compensation Fund for Former Orphanage Children to TV 2 News.

Conspiracy of Silence

So although in Norway it is a criminal act by law not to report sexual abuse against children the board keeps the names a secret, and an order of silence is put in place to prohibit them to distribute the names to the proper authorities. This might effect todays orphanage children.

Office of the Oslo Municipality Compensation Fund for Former Orphanage Children who were abused (Vederlagsutvalget - Oslo kommune) in Norway:

Visiting adress: Øvre Slottsgate 2 b, Oslo Centre, Norway.
Postal adress: City Hall, 0037 Oslo, Norway

- Given that the identified perpetrators in fact have committed sexual abuse against children, then the order of silence that is put in place by Oslo Municipality is seriously obstructing the protection of other children in other institutions against these severe abuses, said Dr. jur Elisabeth Gording Stang from the Norwegian Centre for Human Rights.

That is definately not in accordance with the Children’s Rights Convention, which states that abuse shall be adressed and stopped by any and all means immediately.

Defending the system – Payments in exchange for silence

Sylvi Listhaug, the Oslo City Council Executive Member for Welfare and Social Services from FrP (The Norwegian Right Wing Party) is defending the system:

- The Compensation Fund Board is not supposed to have any opinion on the question of guilt. One of the requirements when people are addressing the Compensation Fund is that the information is protected by order of silence, she said to TV 2 News.


FIKK ERSTATNING: Det tidligere barnehjemsbarnet fikk erstatning, men overgriperen fortsetter i jobben. ( TV 2 )

Sjekker ikke gamle overgripere

Han fikk 725.000 kroner i erstatning etter å ha blitt seksuelt misbrukt på barnehjem, men kvinnen som forgrep seg jobber fortsatt på barnehjemmet.

I 26 år holdt det tidligere barnehjemsbarnet på en hemmelighet.

- Jeg ble seksuelt misbrukt fra 13-årsalderen til jeg var 15 på et privat barnehjem som Oslo kommune betalte. Det skjedde på hver nattevakt, forteller det tidligere barnehjemsbarnet.

Nylig tok han kontakt med Oslo kommunes vederlagsordning for tidligere barnehjemsbarn. Utvalget festet lit til hans detaljerte forklaring om de seksuelle overgrepene, og han fikk utbetalt 725.000 kroner.

Jobber fortsatt
Men, den navngitte overgriperen gjorde ikke utvalget noe med.

- Hun jobber fortsatt på barnehjemmet. Det er fælt at hun kan misbruke andre unger, sier han.

Så langt har 275 personer blitt trodd når de har fortalt om overgrep. Men ingenting blir gjort for å sjekke om de navngitte overgriperne fortsatt er i systemet.

- Det ligger utenfor det som er meningen med kartleggingen, sier Berit Rannestad, sekretariatsleder i Vederlagsutvalget i Oslo kommune til TV 2 Nyhetene.

Dermed gjør ikke utvalget noe med navnene, og taushetsplikten forhindrer dem i å gi navnene videre. Det kan gå utover dagens barnehjemsbarn.

- Forutsatt at de navngitte personene som er oppgitt som overgripere faktisk har begått seksuelle overgrep mot barn, så forhindrer den taushetsplikten en mulig beskyttelse av andre barn i institusjoner, sier Dr. juris Elisabeth Gording Stang ved Norsk senter for menneskerettigheter.

Det er et klart brudd på barnekonvensjonen, som sier at man uansett skal forhindre overgrep.

Forsvarer ordningen
Byråd for velferd og sosiale tjenester i Oslo Sylvi Listhaug (Frp) forsvarer ordningen.

- Vederlagsutvalget skal ikke ta stilling til skyldspørsmålet. En av forutsetningene for at folk går til utvalget er at opplysningene er taushetsbelagte, sier hun til TV 2 Nyhetene.

- Det utvalget skal gjøre er å oppfordre de som har navngitte personer om å melde fra til kommunen, slik at vi kan ta affære. Vi ønsker altså ikke at overgripere skal jobbe i Oslo kommune, legger Listhaug til.

04.12.07 21:05, ny 04.12.07 21:49

4. Stolen Children : Kidnappings by the State : The Case of Canada's Residential Schools

The present large scale child abuse by alienation and exclusion of millions of children from their fathers and their half of the children's extended families, while isolating these children in female oneparent ghetto's, as presently perpetrated by all Christian Western "democracies" with their structural cliëntelism in its backrooms of power is - allthough unprecedented in its present criminal scale and extend - at the same time nothing new in the history of these states who have so little respect for the rights of its children and its minorities.

Collective state abuse against children and families by means of parental alienation and exclusion has allways been perpetrated and legitimised "in the best interest of the children" and constitutes a structural part of the history of Christian Western "democracies".

The Case of Canada's Residential Schools: Canada as a collective child abuser by parental alienation

Call them and they were never gone
First Nations Child & Family Caring Society of Canada; 21 juni 2005

Residential Schools

"Our object is to continue until there is not a single Indian in Canada that has been absorbed into the body politic."
Duncan Campbell Scott

Europeans thought they could raise our children better than we could - No time to Say Goodbye. Here are the results.

"They encircled reserves to stop runaways and then moved door to door taking school age children over the protest of parents and children themselves. Children were locked up in police stations or cattle pens until the round up was complete."
Bennett and Blackstock, 2002

“What if they squeeze all the Indian out of us? What will be left? What do they want, Howard? We’re Indians. That’s it. That’s what we are”

The last residential school closed in 1996

Canadian Child Welfare Approaches
Fifty years ago mainstream child welfare approaches have been applied to assess and respond to child maltreatment in Aboriginal families in much the same way. But was this the best model to respond to a community in crisis as a result of residential schools and colonization?

There are between 22,500 and 28,000 First Nations children in the care of the Canadian child welfare system…three times the number that attended residential schools in the 1940’s.
First Nations Child and Family Caring Society, 2002; Child Welfare League of Canada, 2003; Blackstock, 2002

First Nations CIC Increase by Region 95-01
  • BC 90.4%
  • Alberta 52.7%
  • Sask. 160.3
  • Man. 11.4%
  • Ontario 163.8%
  • Quebec 93.8%
  • Yukon 5.0%
  • Atlantic 130%
Data represents on reserve children only

Census data showed that the population of Status Indian children decreased 1% during this same time period
Statistics Canada, 2001

So why is it that governments require First Nations to follow their child welfare policies – even though there is little evidence they benefit Aboriginal children? Maybe it is because we were not aware that Aboriginal children come to the attention of child welfare for different reasons than non Aboriginal children. Aboriginal children are less likely to be reported for physical and sexual abuse than non Aboriginal children: Neglect (poverty, substance misuse, and poor housing) are the key reasons why Aboriginal come into child welfare care.
Trocme, KnokeBlackstock, 2005

We did not know that Aboriginal children are removed at twice the rate of their non Aboriginal peers despite there being no significant difference in child functioning. We may have not understood that the real risk factors to Aboriginal children are often outside of the control of Aboriginal parents - poverty, poor housing and substance misuse. We assumed that First Nations parents had the same access to supports as non Aboriginal parents

20 years ago First Nations began establishing their own FNCFSA to deliver child welfare on reserve and stem the tide of children leaving their communities - they are required to follow provincial statutes and regulations that have substantively failed Aboriginal children.

The Way Forward:
  • Respecting that Indigenous peoples are in the best position to care for Indigenous children (Cornell and Kalt, 2002; Chandler and Lalonde, 2003)
  • Equal access to resources (MacDonald and Ladd, 2000; Nadjiwanand Blackstock, 2003)
  • Focused and broad based social activism to address structural risk to communities
It begins with understanding that Reconciliation is before us not behind us

Native Canadians to Get 1.6 Billion in damages for Residential School Abuse
Howard Williams; Inter Press Service (IPS); 24 November 2005

OTTAWA, Nov 23 (IPS) - The Canadian government announced Wednesday an "agreement in principle" to pay 1.7 billion dollars to tens of thousands of Canada's indigenous peoples who were physically and sexually abused in government-financed, largely church-run "residential schools".
The residential schools were the government's idea at the time as the best way to "assimilate" native Canadians into the largely European lifestyle and culture of modern Canada. But the scheme turned out to be a disaster, with many credible reports of native children -- Indians and Inuit -- being sexually and physically abused by teachers and staff. Children were even punished with severe beatings when caught speaking in their native languages, even when it was in conversation with their own siblings. Hundreds of stories have emerged of native families being tricked into giving up their children and even cases of children being forcibly kidnapped by government or church agents.

The settlement was announced at a hastily arranged press conference led by Deputy Prime Minister Anne McLellan and Phil Fontaine, the national chief of the Assembly of First Nations, which represents communities on government-recognised reserves from which the children were taken to be assimilated.

It was a particularly emotional moment for Fontaine, 60, who has revealed that he was a victim of both sexual and physical abuse at a residential school. Fontaine told reporters: "While no amount of money will ever heal the emotional scars, this settlement package will contribute to the journey on the path to healing -- not only for residential school survivors but for their children and grandchildren. It's a wonderful day." He said the settlement was the "largest and most comprehensive" of its kind in Canadian history.

Nevertheless, the agreement is still subject to approval by federal courts, which are currently studying hundreds of individual and some class-action cases against the federal government and the churches involved in running the now-discredited residential schools.

Wednesday's package, if confirmed by the courts, will provide payments to some 86,000 former students of the schools. McLellan said that each former residential school student will be entitled to 8,500 dollars plus 2,560 dollars for each year spent in the residential school system. Individuals will receive up to 25,000 dollars each, depending on how long they were in the system. Payments to older victims of the abuse will be streamlined with an immediate downpayment of 6,800 dollars to each ex-student 65 years or older. Fontaine said this was an important element of the package because the average age of the victims was now 60.

The agreement also calls for further action on what McLellan called "a truth and reconciliation" process. "Bringing closure to this chapter of our history lies at the very heart of reconciliation," she said. "I am pleased to announce that we have made good on our shared resolve to deliver what I firmly believe will be a fair and lasting resolution of the Indian school legacy."

But the agreement does not include one demand made by the native groups -- that the federal government actually apologise for the abuse. Asked why not, McLellan said it was still on the table. She hinted it might come as soon as this week when Prime Minister Paul Martin and the premiers of Canada's 10 provinces and three northern territories meet in Kelowna, British Columbia, with native leaders -- including Fontaine. "Quite clearly," said McLellan, "the national chief (Fontaine) and the prime minister may wish to discuss other issues in relation to certain aspects of the residential school experience."

Fontaine said the package covers "decades in time, innumerable events and countless injuries to First Nations individuals and communities".

Among others at the joint press conference was federal Justice Minister Irwin Cotler, a noted former civil rights lawyer and advocate before he entered politics. Cotler said the decision to house young Canadians in residential schools was "the single most harmful, disgraceful and racist act in our history". The schools were launched under British authority, before Canada became an independent nation in 1867, but Ottawa continued to finance the schools until as recently as the 1970s. They are now all closed.

The 106-million-dollar "truth and reconciliation" process will provide funding for five years for the Aboriginal Healing foundation and "truth and reconciliation" gatherings. But victims accepting compensation will waive their rights to sue either the federal government or the churches that ran the schools. The money announced at Wednesday's press conference will be additional to a further series of grants expected to be announced at this week's meeting in Kelowna between Canadian and native leaders.

According to unconfirmed reports in Ottawa, federal and provincial leaders are expected to agree to a 10-year programme, costing more than 3.4 billion dollars, to improve health, education and sanitation on Indian reserves and some "improvement programmes" for natives who have moved away from recognised reserves or lost their right to live on those reserves.